Using Neo4j Graph Databases With ColdFusion

After last week, I decided to put off picking a new frontend platform for my Semantic Web rubric project and focus a bit on the server backend.

Since this is just a proof-of-concept project at this point I can afford to take some risks in choosing technologies. I’ve been following the developments around using graph databases for storing data, especially for Semantic Web applications. One project that kept coming up was Neo4j, a graph database engine built in Java. I figured now was a good time to try it out. My server-side logic is built in ColdFusion, and integrating open source Java projects like Neo4j into CF applications is generally a snap.

Aside from one hiccup, porting Neo4j’s 1-minute Java “Hello World” example to CFML proved to be fairly straightforward. The process I used to get this working is detailed below. I’d suggest that you skim over the Java example before continuing – I’m sure I left out some of the exposition.

First add the Neo4j Jar files to the ColdFusion server:

  • Download the Neo4j “Apoc” distribution and unpack it somewhere convenient. I’m using Mac OS X, so I put things like this in ~/lib/neo4j-apoc-1.0
  • Add the Neo4j JAR files to the ColdFusion classpath. Log into your ColdFusion Administrator, and select Server Settings -> Java and JVM. Enter the path to the lib folder in your Neo4j distribution in ColdFusion Class Path
  • Restart your ColdFusion server. If you’re at all nervous, log back in to the ColdFusion Administrator and verify that the Neo4j jars are indeed listed on your classpath.

Once this is complete, you can initialize a new database for your ColdFusion app. Decide where you want the CF server to create the Neo4j data files and pass that to the object’s init() method. I put mine in a folder under /tmp on Mac OS X.

<cfset dbroot = "/tmp/neo4jtest/" />

<cfset graphDb = createObject('java',
                  "org.neo4j.kernel.EmbeddedGraphDatabase") />
<cfset graphDb.init(dbroot & "var/graphdb") />

[Aside for non-ColdFusion folks: CF doesn't instantiate Java objects quite how you'd expect. The call to CreateObject() just gets a handle on the class itself. Calling init() on the resulting handle actually instantiates the class via the appropriate constructor.]

Just as in the Java example, it’s good to surround your connection with a try/catch block that will close your database connection if you throw an error. As I was working with Neo4j I would periodically lock up my database and not be able to connect without restarting CF. Adding a CFTRY/CFCATCH block cleared this right up.

   <cfset tx = graphDb.beginTx() />


   <cfset tx.finish() />

  <cfcatch type="any">
     <cfset graphDb.shutdown() />
     <cfdump var="#cfcatch#">

<cfset graphDb.shutdown() />

Where things got really sticky was the use of Java enumerations to declare the available relationship types for the graph:

 /* Java code */
 public enum  MyRelationshipTypes implements RelationshipType

To my knowledge there’s no way to declare something like this in standard CFML. I likely could have wrapped this in a Java class of some sort and loaded it through CreateObject(), but that wouldn’t have been true to the spirit of ColdFusion. So I dug around in the Neo4j docs and found an answer: relationships can be created dynamically at runtime from a static method on the class org.neo4j.graphdb.DynamicRelationshipType. I created an instance of DynamicRelationshipType for the “KNOWS” relationship and loaded it into a Struct, anticipating caching them in Application scope for a real application.

 relationship = CreateObject("java",
 MyRelationshipTypes = structNew();
 MyRelationshipTypes.KNOWS = relationship.withName( "KNOWS" );

It might be interesting to see if these relationship enumerations could be generated and compiled by something like JavaLoader. I’m not yet aware of any downsides with dynamic relationships besides the obvious lack of compile-time checking.

The rest of the exercise follows without any real suprises:

 firstNode = graphDb.createNode();
 secondNode = graphDb.createNode();
 relationship = firstNode.createRelationshipTo( secondNode,
                                         MyRelationshipTypes.KNOWS );

 firstNode.setProperty( "message", "Hello, " );
 secondNode.setProperty( "message", "world!" );
 relationship.setProperty( "message", "brave Neo4j " );

 WriteOutput( firstNode.getProperty( "message" ) );
 WriteOutput( relationship.getProperty( "message" ) );
 WriteOutput( secondNode.getProperty( "message" ) );

And there you have it! A quick and dirty Neo4j application built with CFML.

I’ve put a little work into developing a Neo4j helper class that hides some of these warts in a nice clean CFC. As soon as I can get eGit to behave I’ll post the files on GitHub.